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首页 > 高中辅导 > 高考 > 学科备考 > 英语 >

2020届高三一轮复习英语——主谓一致

2019-09-16 15:07:39 来源:启达教育网

2020高考英语你准备好了吗?主谓一致是什么?是指一个句子的主语与谓语的语法形式必须在人称和数上保持一致。 近年来主要考查名词、代词、不定式、动名词等作主语和there be句型的主谓一致。当两个或两个以上作主语的单数名词用and, both ...and连接,并表示两个不同的概念时,谓语动词用复数形式。启达教育老师为你整理了2020届高三一轮复习英语——主谓一致,希望能够对你有所帮助!

语法形式上的一致

主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。例如:

Jane and Mary look healthy and strong.

The number of mistakes was surprising.

解释:主语是 the number,谓语是 was对于数字而言,它是单数,所以用了was;

反思:the number of通常跟 a number of 来对比,a number of 是大量的的意思;后面通常是可数名词的复数,所以谓语也跟着用复数形式,比如 a number of people are rushing to the toilet.

意义上一致

1.主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。例如:

The crowd were running for their lives.

单数形式表示复数意义的词有people,police,cattle,militia等。

2.主语形式为复数而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。 例如:

The news was very exciting.

形复意单的单词有news,works(工厂)和一些以ics结尾的学科名称,如physics,politics,mathematics等。

就近原则

即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如用连词or,either…or,neither...nor,not only…but also等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。例如:

Either your students or Mr. Wang knows this.

应注意的几个问题

1.名词作主语

1)某些集体名词(如family,team等)作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式;如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

The whole family are watching TV.

His family is going to have a long journey.

这类名词有:audience,class,club,committee,company, crew,crowd,enemy,government,group,party,public,team,etc.

名词population一词的使用情况跟上述类似。例如::

The population in China is very large,and eighty percent of the population in China are farmers.

“a group(crowd)of+复数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数,前者强调整体,后者强调各个部分。

2)某些集体名词(如people,police,cattle,militia等)只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。例如:

The police are searching for him.

3)单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。例如:

A sheep is over there.

Some sheep are over there.

4)名词所有格之后的名词被省略的情况一般只指商店、工场、住宅等,作主语时,动词一般用单数。例如:

My Uncle's is not far from here.

The doctor's is on the side of the street.

常见的省略名词有:the baker\'s,the barber\'s,the carpenter\'s,the Zhang\'s,etc,

表示店铺的名词一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。例如:

Richardson\'s have a lot of leather goods to sell.

5)当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数形式。例如:

Five minutes is enough to do this exercise.

The Selected Poems of Li Bai was published long ago.

Three years has passed.

6)不定代词each,every,no所修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多个并列主语,谓语动词仍用单数形式。例如:

Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in the future.

7)如果主语有more than one...或many a…构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。例如:

Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.

More than one student has seen the film.

在“more+复数名词+than one\'’结构之后,谓语词一般用复数形式。例如:

More members than one are against your plan.

8)一些由两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具主语时;谓语通常用复数形式,如scissors,chopsticks,compasses,shoes,trousers,clothes,glasses等。但如果主语由“a kind of ,a pair of,a series of等加名词”构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。例如:

A pair of shoes was on the desk .

9)this kind of book=a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语用单数;短语this kind of men=men of this kind=these kinds of men(口语)(这一类人),但this kind of men的谓语用单数,men of this kind和these kinds of men的谓语用复数。all kinds of后跟复数名词,谓语用复数形式。例如:

Men of this kind are dangerous.

This kind of men is dangerous.

10)复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,作单数意义时,谓语用单数;反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有means(方法),works(工厂),species(种类),Chinese,Japanese等。例如:

The (This) glass works was set up in l970. (这家玻璃厂建于1970年。)

The(These)glass works are near the railway station.(这些玻璃厂在火车站附近。)

当它们前面有a,such a,this,that修饰时,谓语用单数;有all,such,these,those修饰时,谓语用复数。但“means\",“no means\",“the means\"等词前没有以上修饰词时,可作单数,也可用作复数。

注:work作“工作”解时是不可数名词,作“著作”解时是可数名词,有单复数之分。

11)如果名词词组中心词是all,most,half,rest,part等词语,表示的是复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式;反之,用单数。例如:

All of the water is gone.

All of my classmates work hard.

12)在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:

Between the two windows hangs a picture.

2.由连接词连接的名词作主语

13)用and或both...and连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。例如:

Walking and riding are good exercises.

Plastics and rubber never rot.

但是,并列主语如果指的,是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用:单数形式,这时,and后面的名词没有冠词。例如:

A knife and fork is on the table.

Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.

The girl's teacher and friend is a young doctor.

Truth and honesty is the best policy。

14)当主语后面跟有as well as,as much as,no less than, along with,with, like,rather than,together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:

The room with its furniture was rented.

The teacher as well as the students was excited.

15)以or,either...,neither...nor,not only…but also等连接的名词(代词)作主语,谓语动词的单复数应根据就近一致的原则。例如:

Neither you nor I nor anybody else knows anything about it..

Either you or he is to go.

Tom or his brothers are waiting in the room.

3.代词作主语

16)名词型物主代词后的动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。例如:

Ours(Our Party) is a great party.

our shoes are black,mine (=my shoes) are brown.

17)such,the same起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。例如:

Such are his words.

Such is our plan.

18)关系代词who,that,which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。例如:

Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

Those who want to go please you’re your names here.

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